Artificial Intelligence (AI) in Primary Care

July 17, 2018

eGPLearning Podblast: Artificial Intelligence - Shownotes

 

This is a themed episode where we talk about Artificial Intelligence (AI) in primary care - the applications, risks and benefits to patients and clinicians.

eGPlearning Podblast is a health tech talk by two Nottingham based GPs covering recent topics, useful clinical apps, and interviews with primary care health tech innovators.

Hosted by Dr Hussain Gandhi (@drGandalf52) and Dr Andrew Foster (@drawfoster).

 

 Disclaimer  - We are not experts, but we are interested GPs, we are merely discussing our impressions, ideas and concerns and optimism in the hope that you may find this interesting.

 

Thank you:

@SonaliKinra @NottsLMC @NCGPANottm @jacey_melody @kalindikrishna @rcgpfaculties @2GPs_in_a_pod @mededbot @dme_health @karthikrishna86 @dr_zo

Update:

Andy: (1.15) - @ANorrisMP attended the practice

Gandhi: (1.38)



What is AI? (5.12)

Artificial intelligence (AI) in healthcare: is the use of algorithms and software to approximate human cognition in the analysis of complex medical data. Specifically, AI is the ability for computer algorithms to approximate conclusions without direct human input.

 

When thinking about A lot of people think of Artificial General Intelligence, an artificial agent that thinks like a human, but this is thought to be a long way off.

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qDrDUmuUBTo

HAL 9000 from 2001 A Space Odysey is a (rather sinister) example of Artificial General Intelligence.

 

AI is a combination of key technologies…

 

Key terms, definitions and technologies:

 

The 4th industrial revolution

Deep learning, algorithms, fast processing, storage capacity and ability to collect large amounts of data are the foundations of the 4th industrial revolution - AI.

 

Logic and rules based AI…

 

  • “Top down approach”- system designers provide the rules for computer to follow
  • Simpler than more modern approaches, but this can be very powerful
  • Examples include: Automatic tax return software, Qrisk, FeverPain, FRAX (7.16)
  • Already used for prescription safety like OptimizeRX (7.30) and advice, flagging investigation results
  • Could be useful for automating simple tasks like processing some blood results

 

Pattern based AI...

 

Machine Learning (7.53) - see our episode with Jon Brassey

  • Training a machine using data sets with known outcomes
  • The algorithm analyses lots of data with known outcomes, makes connections - thus training the model which changes its own approach as it learns
  • Eventually the software look at new novel data and reach reliable conclusion

 

Deep Learning (9.20)

 

Natural Language Processing

  • Key technology for understanding and communicating with humans naturally
  • Human communication is HARD to understand
  • Currently humans really have to adapt their behaviour to interact with computers, unnatural things - type on keyboard, use mouse, touch screen
  • Once can understand human speech and communication much more data available for training algorithms - progress in AI will accelerate.
  • Examples include: Dictation software - already here! - Dragon (13.30), Voice assistants (12.20) https://youtu.be/_ldoV5FQn0k , translation, learning from consultation transcripts

 

Computer vision

Similar to natural language processing in unlocking image and video data to train algorithms. Potential to initially impact, Radiology, dermatology, ENT(15.07), retinal imaging.



Implications for general practice…

Will it change things quickly or slowly?...

 

Some potential benefits of AI in General Practice:

  • Triage and screening supporting access and effective use of resources
  • Support medical practice, diagnosis and treatment. Big opportunity to improve quality, consistency, safety
  • Supporting and caring for patients - supporting social care
  • Accelerating medical research - data collection, processing, more data, quicker in new ways
  • Drug/treatment/device development

 

Special mention for...

@BabylonHealth - They are sometimes controversial, but are a British company leading the world in Medical AI!

Babylon to be installed as standard on Samsung mobile phones https://www.ft.com/content/e7035e0c-634e-11e8-a39d-4df188287fff

Partnership in  China https://www.digitalhealth.net/2018/04/babylon-ai-technology-china-tencent/



Potential problems with AI:

and Genomics(https://egplearning.co.uk/ramblings/podblast/egplearning-podblast-episode-10-genomics-and-bnf/) (19.10)




Effect on Jobs?

  • Mass unemployment or...
  • New problems and needs arise as old ones are surmounted
  • Potential new jobs in healthcare related to AI
    • Facilitating and explaining engagement with AI - Healthcare workers are complex communication experts
    • Training the AI
    • Maintaining the AI
    • Creativity in service design
    • Original thought and innovation
  • Focus on the right skills - creativity, innovation abilities, using and training technology



So… Are you feeling positive about AI in healthcare?

 

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